The failure of the mind to recognize its own nature is what is meant by the term “ma-rik-pa,” or ignorance, the first level of obscuration or defilement in the mind. As a result of this ignorance, there arises in the mind the imputation of an “I” and an “other,” something that is other than the mind. This dualistic clinging, something that we have had throughout beginningless time and that never stops, is the second level of obscuration, the obscuration of habits. Based upon this dualistic clinging arise the three root mental afflictions: mental darkness, desire, and aggression. Based upon those three afflictions are the 84,000 various mental afflictions, the third level of obscurations, called the obscuration of mental affliction. Under the influence of this, we perform actions that are obscured in their nature – the fourth level, called the obscuration of actions or karma. These four levels or types of obscurations are the cause for all sentient beings to wander in samsara. If these are removed or cleaned, then the inherent qualities of mind’s nature, which we refer to as wisdom or “yeshe,” will naturally manifest and spread like the rays of the sun. The word in Tibetan for the removal of these obscurations, “sang,” means “cleansing,” and the word for the spreading of the inherent qualities of the mind that occurs as a result of that is “gye,” or “increasing.” “Sang-gye,” these two words together, is the Tibetan word for a Buddha. Therefore what is meant by Buddhahood is the recognition and realization of the complete purity of the mind.
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